Manual The Graphic Sound: An Archeology of Sound, Technology and Knowledge at 1900

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It will not be possible to develop the cre- ative possibilities of the talking film to the full until the acoustic alphabet of sound writing will have been mastered. Or, in other words, until we can write acoustic sequences on the sound track without having to record any real sound. Once this is achieved the sound-film composer will be able to create music from a counterpoint of unheard or even nonexistent sound values, merely by means of opto-acoustic notation. As it turns out, Moholy-Nagy did not have to wait long for this challenge to be taken up and met successfully.

Revisiting the history of his own writings on the possibilities of synthetic sound from the happy perspective of the visionary whose long- doubted speculations had at long last been proven right, Moholy-Nagy writes in the published version of that lecture : Sound-script makes possible acoustic phenomena which conjure up out of nothing audible music without the previous play of any musical instru- ment. We are in a position today to be able to play written sounds, music written by hand, without involving an orchestra, by the use of the appara- tus of the sound film.

It is a great pleasure for me to be able to report on this acoustical phenomenon; inasmuch as I had already explained it in articles and lectures ten years ago, although I was not fortunate enough to be able to experiment with it then, I am very happy today to witness the successful realization of those of my suggestions previously labeled absurd.

A few years later I extended my phonograph experiments to include radio, sound film and television [sic]. Besides the afore- mentioned Humphries in England, in the Soviet Union there were, according to some accounts, no less than three separate groups of researchers working on hand-drawn sound in Leningrad and Moscow: their ranks included figures such as the composer, music theorist, and performance instigator Arsenii Avraamov; the painter, book illustrator, and animator Mikhail Tsekhanovskii; the engineer Evgenii Sholpo; the animators Nikolai Voinov and Nikolai Zhilinski; and the inventor Boris Yankovskii.

Might there exist some deep and previ- ously inaccessible common structural logic that governs both the most prevalent orna- mental practices of a given society and its dominant auditory patterns? Posing the question in rather explicitly nationalistic terms in a widely published essay, Fischinger states: Personal, national and characteristic traits naturally will also be expressed in the ornament. In terms of their vocal intonation Germans tend to make a strong attack which corresponds to a specifically jagged curve whereas the soft vocal attack of the French also manifests itself in a correspond- ingly different fashion in the ornament.

In he was discovered in Munich by the U. Pfenninger simul- taneously pursued intensive engineering research on new radio technologies, in the course of which he developed and patented a number of improvements for loudspeakers, microphones, and so on.

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It was in the context of this laboratory work that he began his experiments in synthetic sound. Unlike Fischinger, however, Pfenninger seems to have been motivated less by synes- thesial speculations than by economic necessity. According to the story, the poorly paid inventor Pfenninger was eager to provide a sound track for the experimental animations he was making on the side, but he could afford neither the musicians nor the studio to record them. Using the newly available optical film soundtrack to test his experimental results, he would painstakingly draw the desired curve onto a strip of paper which he then photographed in order to integrate it into the opti- cal sound track.

Odo S. As if this was not enough, however, Matz goes on to dismiss the achievement of the British competitor as facile techno-mimesis why bother synthesizing the human voice when any microphone could do it better? Herein lies the magical quality of this invention. These were preceded by a fascinating pedagogical documentary entitled Das Wunder des gezeichneten Tones The Wonder of Hand-Drawn Sound which was also released as a newsreel announcing the new discovery and consisting of an illustrated history of sound recording followed by an on-camera interview of Pfenninger by the charismatic film personality Helmuth Renar.

The journal- istic response was, as one might expect, both extensive and largely enthusias- tic. It sounds strangly unreal. Our technological sense was fascinated, our imagination of the future provoked! At the same time, I must admit that our music-loving ear did go on strike, and our lively artistic consciousness was troubled. Was this still music? One heard piano and xylo- phone-like sounds, others which seemed to come out of a steam whistle— all of them crafted together with great precision, much as if someone were to build a tree out of a thousand pieces of wood, which can look deceptively real and yet will never bloom!

Without a doubt, this abstract, this skeletal music fit best with the animated images—here there was a sort of technical unison. The effect was like that of a dance of the dead! Perhaps the Pfenninger method will also succeed in finding tones and tonal complexes which are new and cannot be produced by natural means; i. Let us hope that it turns out to be beautiful! But this seemingly progressive openness to an unknown acoustic futurity was of course itself also a way of displacing the threat posed to the organic notion of the acoustic by synthetic sound—a tree made of wood but that can never bloom!

For all music is made with machines—only the larynx is organic.

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This extremity must have been suggested by the experiments of Oscar Fischinger whose compositions of dancing lines are the only kind of abstract film which can be found in the regular pro- gramme of the German cinemas, and which are well received by the public. Simpler, more thorough and practical seem to be the similar endeavours of Rudolf Pfenniger [sic], who after a long and diffi- cult analysis, was successful in the calculation of sound writings, and also in drawing them with the hand. Fischinger, as he himself is the first to admit, is basically interested in exploring the relationship between given graphic forms and their acoustic correlates, and how that isomorphism might allow one to make cultural-physiogonomic comparisons.

Based on the score, the pitches that are needed are chosen to be photographed. Eschewing aesthetic discourse entirely, Pfenninger focused on the technological development of a new form of acoustic writing, a semio-pragmatics of sound whose function was to liberate composition from the constraints of both the extant musical instru- mentarium and reigning notational conventions.

Rudolf Pfenninger, however, produces tones from out of nowhere. Indeed, the experimental fascina- tion with establishing the acoustic correlates of a profile or of a par- ticular visual form at some level always also assumes that such sounds are sounds of something, even if that something is now simply a recognizable graphic trace. While Fischinger merely photographs sound as a process, Pfenninger captures it as individual images, which led him to develop templates by means of which particular sounds and sound groups can be repeated at will.

Is this yet another instance of a radically new technology for the generation of sound attempting to legitimate itself not by foregrounding its own unprecedented sonic capacities but by slavishly simulating well-known classical pieces—as was the case, for example, with the early performances that introduced the tech- nological wonder of the Theremin? And that discomfort stemmed not least from the fact that, while at this initial stage the sound could still be differentiated from the signature timbre of traditional instruments, it was—at least in theory—only a matter of time and technical refinement until it would no longer be possible to distinguish acoustically a sound generated synthetically from a sound produced by con- ventional means.

The introduction of optical film sound in the lates had already made possible a previously unavailable degree of postproduction editing, thereby undermining the temporal integrity of acoustic recordings, which could now be patched together out of various takes at various times. Although it was unlikely that one would be able in the near future to create entire compositions by synthetic means ex nihilo—or perhaps better, ex stylo—what was decidedly possible was minimal and punctual interventions into the fabric of extant recordings.

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  • This is precisely what Humphries had done—incorporating just a few unnoticeable substitutions into the otherwise intact optical soundtrack of a film. Indeed, the extent of the critical reaction to his efforts was itself a good barometer of the threat they represented to a certain— indexical—ideology of recorded sound.

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    For while the cut threatens the integrity of the recording as a continuous event, it does not in any way undermine the indexicality of the recording process as such, which continues to govern all of the now rearranged pieces just as much as it did before they were edited. No longer the re-phenomenalized trace of a prior acoustic event, as tones from out of nowhere, they are no longer sounds of anything but are, instead, simply a set of graphic i. Since all the contingent possibilities on the one hand, and all the shortcomings that are characteristic of a number of musical instruments on the other, will now be eliminated by the sounding handwriting.

    In other words, a technological doubt has been introduced into the indexical readabil- ity of recorded performance. At any point what one is hearing might be the product of a synthetic, Pfenningerian postproduction intervention that is unrec- ognizable as such. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde took advantage of the uncanny acoustic possibilities afforded by the new technique as a means to provide a sonic correlate to the transformation of the gentleman into the monster and vice versa. Published in Norman McLaren.

    While this seems not to have been the case although it is entirely possible that synthetic sound continued to be used discretely by the major studios when needed , the British interest in the subject did, however, lead to what is arguably the most significant reception of work in synthetic sound done elsewhere. Donald Carter, , which the program notes describe as follows: Two films showing the different system of sound recording. Of special technical interest in the English film is the actual photography of the pho- tographic trace of the light beam which was developed while it was being filmed.

    The process of recording is normally carried out in the dark, but, by choice of the right film stock for the motion picture camera, and by illu- minating the scene with a light which does not affect positive film on which the recording is done , a picture has been obtained of the actual recording sound waves.

    The sounds which are shown are synthetic, but they follow the mechanical wave form of sound. But when asked about the inspiration for the much more systematic technique of generating syn- thetic sound that he developed in the early s, McLaren credits the Continental experimental films shown at the Glasgow School of Art, where he had studied from to Amongst them was a film called Tonal Hand- writing made by a German engineer from Munich— Rudolph Phenninger [sic]. He had evolved a system. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Get access to the full version of this article.

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