In contrast, students who struggle with mathematics may find it difficult to successfully carry out parts or, indeed, all of this complex process. To solve a word problem, students need to understand its context and develop a strategy to solve it. There are many ways to help your students build these skills and understand how to use them in specific situations see UDL Checkpoint 6. One strategy is to use a process chart, which can guide students as they tackle a new problem.

It helps to focus on how each step of the process supports students as they work to access the problem. An example problem-solving process is provided below:. Teacher-student interaction will help you differentiate instruction. Ask students to compare and contrast different approaches, and then summarize their responses for them. Students should understand what works and does not work and why ; which methods are more efficient; and how models differ. It is critical that teachers elicit, value, and celebrate approaches that are different but nonetheless arrive at the correct solution. Encourage your students to use pictures, diagrams, charts, expressions, and equations as part of the problem-solving process.

Discuss with them how their picture, diagram, chart, expression, or equation relates to the situation in the problem. Ask them to explain why they chose it and why they think it is a good mathematical expression to use for the problem they are tackling. There are many technology tools and resources that can support students as they work to understand problems and expand their repertoire of appropriate models. Virtual manipulatives can be used in addition to or as an alternative to the physical manipulatives that are already found in most mathematics classrooms.

## PME Journal Problem Department

The following short video, Virtual Manipulatives , below provides an overview of how to make use of virtual manipulatives. There are also many websites that offer lesson plans for teachers. ReadWriteThink , for example, provides a number of high-quality materials, including several that focus specifically on developing reading comprehension through mathematical problem solving.

Look for links to other suggested materials on PowerUp's Pinterest page. As the end of the school year approaches, almost all of Mr. Garcia's Grade 3 students are proficient at multiplying and dividing numbers up to Most are able to apply their skills to solve word problems, but several students are still struggling — in particular, they have difficulty articulating explanations for their solutions.

Throughout the year, Mr.

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Garcia's students have been building a class website, through which they share useful resources with other third-grade students and show parents their progress in class. Garcia decides that his next lesson will reinforce their understanding of problem-solving strategies in alignment with the CCSS on mathematical practice see above. Students will create their own word problems and write the solutions to those problems. The final product will be a presentation that can be shared on the class website.

While Mr. Garcia will rely heavily on his interactive whiteboard to communicate visually with the class, he will also encourage his students to use a variety of technology tools, including:. Garcia decides to begin the class by reviewing the problem-solving process. He works with the entire class to solve a multiplication problem from Thinking Blocks :.

Students then work in pairs to create their own problems. When the class comes back together later in the lesson, Mr. Garcia will invite a few pairs to present their problems and solutions, specifically choosing students who are able to provide clear explanations. All students will then write up their problems and solutions to share on the class website. To finish the lesson, students will write summaries that describe how to determine whether a word problem requires multiplication or division.

Garcia's lesson plan is divided into three sections — launch, learning task, and closure — and is outlined in the chart below. PowerUp is a free, teacher-friendly website that requires no log in or registration. The Instructional Strategy Guide on Understanding Problems includes a brief overview of the topic with an accompanying slide show; a list of the relevant mathematics Common Core State Standards; evidence-based teaching strategies to differentiate instruction using technology; short videos; and links to resources that will help you use technology to support mathematics instruction.

If you want to dig deeper into the research foundation behind best practices in the use of virtual manipulatives, take a look at our Tech Research Brief on the topic. If you are responsible for professional development, check out the PD Support Materials for helpful ideas and materials for using the resources. Want more information?

## Mathematics and Methodology for Economics

Sponsored Links About these ads Consumer Tips. He also published papers in statistics, especially on measurement in economics, and in insurance, mainly on macroeconomic aspects of risk management. He is specialized on computer and network security. His fields of research are mathematical modelling in economics, particularly in the theory of growth, measurement in economics, taxes, distribution of wealth, price indices.

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He developped a model. Their approach in presenting mathematical fundamentals as the foundation of economic research and to use examples from economics instead of physics, prevalent almost everywhere else is outstanding. The numerous exercises with solutions at the end of each section are very helpful and complete my excellent overall impression of the didactics of the book by Eichhorn and Gleissner.

In my opinion, the book is very well-suited for beginners, advanced students and researchers alike. When reading this book, I could truly feel the lifelong teaching experience of its two authors. A highly recommendable book.

### Problem-Solving

JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Economics Economic Theory. Provides the core knowledge required for a mathematical approach to economics Includes more than 2, examples and exercises with applications and answers Helps in understanding the role of mathematics in methodology for economics see more benefits. Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover.

## Step-by-Step Math Problem Solver

Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this Textbook This book about mathematics and methodology for economics is the result of the lifelong experience of the authors. Show all. This influenced his teaching experience: some twenty years, mostly in Landshut, but also at the Technical Universites of Karlsruhe and Munich, the University of Applied Sciences in Rosenheim.